A Treated Sewage Means Health
A Treated Sewage Means Health

The sewage is formed by the used water in daily activities, such as washing dishes, taking a shower, flushing the toilet. Besides the water served, the sewer contains dejects and, if it does not receive proper treatment, it will infect the environment and harm the public health. Because of this, the sewage treatment is so important service to the population quality of life.

The absence of sewage collection and treatment make the communities live with their own dejects, especially when these are thrown outdoors, in pits, normally poorly build, black ditches or directly in streams. The contact with the sewage increases the risk of multiple diseases, such as: hepatitis A, giardiasis, amoebic dysentery, diarrhea by virus, typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, bacterial diarrhea and dysentery (such as cholera), hookworm (yellowing), Ascaris (roundworm), taeniasis, cysticercosis, filariasis (elephantiasis), schistosomiasis, etc.

The diseases related to the absence of sewage treatment affect people of all ages, but children are the most harmed on the issue. According to “Sanitation and Health” research from the “Instituto Trata Brasil”, “the mother´s answers regarding their youngest children points out that the main victims of the lack of sanitation are the children from 1-6 years, in which 32% more die when they lack collected sewage”. Still according to the research, another preferred victim by the lack of sewage are pregnant women, because the lack of sewage collection and treatment increases 30% the chance of having born-dead babies.

Even out of extreme cases, which results in death, diseases related to the lack of sewage treatment hinders the development and frequency of children in school. According to BNDES, in Brazil, 65% of children hospitalizations younger than 10 years are associated to the lack of basic sanitation. In the case of adults, these diseases impact directly in the absence at work.

The advantages of the investment in treating the sewage for public health are visible. According to FUNASA (Health national Foundation), for each R$1.00 (one real) invest in sanitation, it saves R$4.00 (four reais) in curative medicine. The sewage is so important to improve the Human Development Index (HDI) that the seventh of the Millennium Development Goals (a series of socioeconomic goals that the ONU´s countries have committed to achieve until 2015) is to reduce by half the number of people without sewerage.

In Campo Grande, Águas Guariroba have been working in order to change the scenery of the city in what concerns the access to the sewerage. In March 2006, it launched the Programa Saneaer Morena sanitation program, and it extended the access to the Capital´s sewerage from 32% to 58%, making 54,401 new domestic connections available. All sewage collected by the company is treated and the effluent is returned to the springs in conformity to the environmental guidelines without posing any kind of contamination risks.

The company is performing its role in order to improve the health and life quality of the city. Now it is up to every citizen to perform his/her role, making his/her connection to the available sewerage. With this, they will be protecting their family health and all population.

SOURCE:

Instituto Trata Brasil:

http://www.tratabrasil.org.br

Projeto Esgoto é Vida – Dossiê do Saneamento: http://www.esgotoevida.org.br

PNUD Brasil: http://www.pnud.org.br.

DISEASES RELATED TO THE LACK OF BASIC SANITATION

The water related diseases through sewers are mainly caused by pathogenic microorganisms of enteric, animal or human origin, especially:

Typhoid fever:

Infectious disease, characterized by continuous fever, uneasiness, pink stains on the body, dry cough, constipation more frequent than diarrhea and lymphoid tissues compromise. Etiologic Agent: Salmonella Typhi, gram-negative bacteria: Transmission mode: water related disease, whose transmission occurs through the ingestion of water and molluscs, as well as milk and derivate, the main foods responsible by its transmission. Other foods, when manipulated by bearers, might transport S. typhi, including in juices. Incubation term: 2 weeks, approximately.

Paratyphoid fever:

Bacterial infection that is characterized by continuous fever, eventual appearance of pink stains in the body and commonly diarrhea. Although similar to Typhoid Fever, its mortality is much more lower.

Shigeloses:

Acute bacterial infection, mainly in the large intestine characterized by fever, nausea and sometimes vomit, colic and tenesmus (painful sensation in the bladder or the anal region). In grave cases the feces contain blood, mucus and pus.

Synonymy: Bacillary dysentery

Etiologic Agent: negative gram-bacteria of the Shigella gender, constituted by four species: S. dysenteriae (group A), S. flexnere (group B), S. boydii (group C) and S. sonnei (group D) Transmission Mode: the infection is acquired by the ingestion of contaminated water or food prepared with contaminated water. It was also demonstrated that Shigelas can be transmitted by personal contact. Incubation period: varies between 12 to 48 hours.

Cholera:

Acute bacterial intestinal disease, characterized by abundant aqueous diarrhea, occasional vomit, quick dehydration, acidosis, muscular cramps and respiratory breakdown, which may lead the patient to death in a 4 to 48 hours period (non-treated cases). Etiologic Agent: Vibrio cholerae. Transmission mode: ingestion of water or food contaminated by feces or vomits from sick people or bearer. The contamination from person to person is less important in the epidemiological chain. Incubation period: varies between hours to 5 days. In most of the cases it varies from 2 to 3 days.

Hepatitis A:

Generally starts with sudden fever, general uneasiness, lack of appetite, nausea, abdominal symptoms followed by jaundice. Convalescence is often prolonged and the severity increases with age, but there is full recovery without sequel. The distribution of the Hepatitis A virus is global; but in places where sanitation is poor, the common infection is common and occurs in young children. Etiologic Agent: Hepatitis virus type A, RNA Hepatovirus, Picornavirus family. Transmission mode: fecal-oral, contaminated water, contaminated food. Incubation period: from 15 to 45 days, 30 days medium.

Amebiasis

Infection caused by a protozoan parasite which is present in two forms: as infectious cyst, resistant and as trophozoite and more fragile and potentially invasive. The parasite can act in a commensal way or invade the tissues, originating intestinal or extraintestinal infections. Intestinal diseases varies from acute and fulminating dysentery, with fever and chills and bloody diarrhea or mucoid (amoebic dysentery), to a mild abdominal uneasiness and diarrhea with blood and mucus alternating with periods of remission or shudder Etiologic Agent: Entamoeba hystolytica. Transmission mode: ingestion of water or food contaminated by dejects, containing amoebic cysts. Rarely occurs during sexual transmission through anal-oral contact. Incubation period: between 2 to 4 weeks, but it may vary in days, months or years.

Giardíase:

Often asymptomatic, it can also be associated with a variety of intestinal symptoms: chronic diarrhea, steatorrhea, abdominal colic, eliminating greasy whitish and fetid feces, fatigue and loss of, the first sign of the frequent infestation is the presence of live worms in the stool or revived. Pulmonary signs includes the Coiffer syndrome, characterized by irregular breathing, coughing spasms, fever and pronounced eosinophilia in the blood. The high density of parasites can cause digestive and nutritional disorders, abdominal pain, vomiting, restlessness and sleep disturbance. Often fatal severe complications include bowel obstruction, adult worms migrate to the liver, pancreas, appendix, peritoneal cavity and upper respiratory tract.

Synonymy: Infection by Ascaris:

Etiologic Agent: Ascaris lumbricoides, or worms. Transmission mode: ingestion of the infecting parasite eggs, coming from soil, food or water contaminated with human feces. Incubation period: from 4 to 8 days, time necessary to complete the parasite´s vital cycle.

Leptospirosis:

Etiologic Agent: Leptospira interrogans.

Transmission mode: ingestion of water or food contaminated with rat urine. Occurring with more frequency in times of rains and/or overflow Asymptomatic frequency: The disease can present itself as a simple flu-like illness, up to severe liver and kidney complications. “Vomits may also occur, head and muscular aches, especially in the calf”. Incubation period: varies between 1 to 30 days.